Friday, April 22, 2016

Feminist: The Label That Fit Me Like a Glove

By Annette Mukiga, Program Officer for RWN

The partnership between RWN and IIE under the African Centers of Excellence for Women's Leadership (ACE) program started in 2013 and I have been part of the different ACE convenings and activities since then. The most common threads in all these events have been feminist transformational leadership, personal reflection and promoting self care and love as well as our personal “her stories” as a way to keep our feminist principles alive and working in practice.

I have been working for Rwanda Women Network (RWN) for more than a decade and for the first time I could sense that this world that I entered as a young woman was feeling more like home. I finally had a name “Feminist” and it fit me like a glove. I am shameless and unapologetic in taking it and flaunting it as my own.

In most countries and cultural contexts, the word “feminism” carries a negative connotation, with feminism being seen as a western ideology that demonizes men. Feminists are caricatured as “man haters” and “home breakers”. The term feminism may have originated in Europe, but we lived it as Africans before we even knew what it meant.

There have been many struggles by women in challenging traditional and patriarchal systems all over the world and close to home, the famous Rwandan folktale of Ndabaga, the young woman who disguised herself as a young man in order to be admitted in a military camp is a powerful story of a woman who pushed and challenged the gender boundaries of that time.  As a single woman and mother continuously challenging society norms that want to shrink and shape me into “a submissive, virtuous and good woman” I identify with this woman.

For me this journey has led to both personal and professional growth. When I sat through one of the self-care sessions in feminist transformational process, I was hesitant at first. But after I went through a few and did some of the exercises including the body map for the first time, I began to understand body politics and the importance of space for myself. It was rejuvenating, I have learnt to love myself. I found this only in a feminist space!

Naturally, I am a person that is very reserved and like leading from the sidelines and hate the limelight. I have come to love me. For me to give back to the world I have to love myself first and not feel guilty about it. I have had to learn, know more and be in tune with who I am, my journey and where I want to be in this world. To know my strengths and my weaknesses in order to go where I want to go – it is not an easy journey and needs continuous reflection and keeping the bigger picture in focus.

As I continue to grow and take on bigger leadership responsibilities especially around promoting women’s rights, holding leaders accountable and advocating on gender and women’s issues like violence against women and girls, women’s safe spaces, women in decision making, reproductive health, family planning as well as contentious issues like abortion; I am counting on my strength as a woman as well as feminist principles to guide me through.

Feminism - a perspective that values all people as equal, women and men, boys and girls.
“Any woman who chooses to behave like a full human being should be warned that the armies of the status quo will treat her as something of a dirty joke………………. She will need her sisterhood” Gloria Steinem.

Rwanda Women's Network (RWN) is one of the four partner institutes of the African Centers of Excellence (ACE) for Women's Leadership program run by the Institute of International Education (IIE) , Ethiopia Office.
For more on IIE , ACE or RWN please follow the links below.

Monday, April 11, 2016

By Eunice Musiime- Executive Director, Akina Mama wa Afrika
The United Nations 60th Commission on the Status of Women (CSW60) was held from the 14th-25th March in New York. This year's theme was "Women's empowerment and the link to sustainable development. Representatives of UN Member States, UN entities and Non – Governmental Organisations (NGOs) accredited by the UN Economic and Social Council attended the CSW60.

 At the opening, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka, the UN Women Executive Director and a UN Under-Secretary-General, said "This session marks the beginning of the countdown to 2030 to the future we want, in which no one is left behind." She also emphasized the fact that Governments cannot solely deliver on this very ambitious development framework; calling on Member States to collaborate with various stakeholders including civil society and women's rights organizations. She added that greater support and protection of civil society is needed to ensure greater political space and capacity for them.
 In his opening remarks, UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon acknowledged the strides made. He noted that he had appointed more than 150 women as Assistant Secretary-Generals or Under-Secretary-Generals. "When I took office, there were no women special representatives – often known as SRSGs – in the field," Ban observed. "Today, nearly a quarter of UN missions are headed by women. That is not nearly enough, but it is a major step in realizing the Security Council's historic resolution 1325 on women, peace and security.”
Akina Mama wa Afrika (AMwA) was one of the organizations that organized a parallel session on women, peace and security and its link to achieving sustainable development. The panel composed of the African Union Special Envoy on Peace and Security, Ms Bineta Diop,  the Chairperson of AMwA: Ms. Thokozile Ruzvidzo; A renown Feminist from Zambia Ms. Sara Longwe; A peace and security activist from Democratic Republic of Congo, Ms Josephine Malimukono, The Executive Director of FIDA-Uganda, Ms. Irene Ovonji; Ms. Muadi Mukenge from the Global Fund for Women and Ms. Eunice Musiime, the Executive Director of Akina Mama wa Afrika.

Ms. Thokozile Ruzvidzo, Director African Centre for Gender and Social Development speaking at AMwA Parallel Event
Ms. Thokozile Ruzvidzo, Director African Centre for Gender and Social Development speaking at AMwA Parallel Event on the 18th of March 2016, Salvation Army 

With the current conflicts in the region, the panel and participants shared experiences of how they are working to advance the women, peace and security agenda but noted that there is still a lot more to be done. A broad critique of the failure of several policies and frameworks such as United Nations Security Council Resolution 1325 to increase the participation of women in peace processes was discussed, citing that mechanisms developed have not focused on creating inclusive processes as a result of patriarchal norms.

 The AU Special Envoy on Peace and Security noted that “When women groups have the opportunity and capacity to exercise effective influence on the peace process the likelihood of peace agreements being reached and implemented is much higher.” She pledged to work with women rights organizations in advancing women’s participation.
 Reflecting on the different panels and sessions, one of the key take –always is how to replicate best practices on the local, national and global level rather than re-inventing the wheel.
Overall the question of women, peace and security remains central to the realization of the Agenda2030, and should be one of the issues African governments especially from the Great Lakes Region focus on as they seek to prioritise which goals of the agenda to implement.

AKina Mama wa Afrika (AMwA) is one of the four partner institutes of the African Centers of Excellence (ACE) for Women's Leadership program run by the Institute of International Education (IIE) , Sub Saharan Africa- Ethiopia Office.

For more on IIE , ACE or AMwA please follow the links below.

Tuesday, April 5, 2016

I am a child of abused mother

In recent past Kenya has witnessed escalation of violence against women. While others have been left injured with disabilities other women have been killed. Quite recently a young woman was beaten by her partner and thrown out of a four-floor building. She was then electrocuted by the fence at the gate and hit the floor with her head. She died instantly. This has made me wonder so many things. Perpetrators of violence often instill fear to their victims and that their self esteem is no more and the strength to leave is not there. I kept on wondering what about children who witness these crimes and violence, what about them? 

Recently I caught a story by a child of a survivor of violence and this is her story. Her name is Nancy* and this is her story;

This is particularly hard for me to share, first because I love my mother very much, and secondly, because I know this update will bring scrutiny to her, and I am not sure she wants that part of her life known but anyway.

My mother was in an abusive marriage for as long as I can remember. First emotional abuse. He broke her little by little. First she had a terrible lip color, next the blue dress made her look like a slut. Then the heels sent the wrong message to men, and then she was spending too much on expensive clothes or shoes or perfume that was not good anyway. Then, her friends were not good enough. One was too opinionated, the other loose morals, the other a smart mouth, and yet another a bad influence. My mother, caved to all of her husband's demands, because he loved her, and he was her prince charming, and his comments, however nasty, were coming from a good place. After all, aren’t partners supposed to be brutally honest?

Then we were born, and mom did not have enough time to look as good anymore. All she wanted was her kids to be fed and happy, and her business to run successfully so that she could provide for her family. Then the incessant complains intensified. Her clothes now were dirty, did not fit properly, she smelled, did not do her hair... etc. etc. Mom still stayed despite the hurtful things he said, because, men are visual beings, and father was just asking for more instead of roving. Soon after, the beatings started. First it was a slap for talking back, which was followed by remorse and an apology. A black eye here, bruises on the stomach there etc. mom stayed. After all, her kids were tiny and they needed her. Then the aunties started. He would bring them to live with us, so that they could go to college while living with us. They were always his distant cousins. When mom was away at the family business, he was home sleeping with his "distant cousins" he was so careless that we saw it, but we were just too young to know what we saw. We told our mom, and her heart broke into pieces. When she confronted him, the "distant cousin" was thrown out and my mother beaten black and blue. She had had it, so she moved upcountry to her parents in law's farm, hoping that they would intervene.

They did not, they told her to vumilia (persevere), go back to her husband and kids and figure it out. After all, 'wengi wamevumilia na wanaishi'- many have endured and lived. By then I was around 10, and my father was already emotionally abusing us the kids, especially me because he had some deep seated hatred for the female gender. We were completely alienated from our friends. He picked at everything we did, and I was often punished for my brother's mistakes, so much so that my brothers actively avoided trouble to keep me from beatings. My elder brother, at 13, dared my father to hit me ever again; he was beaten, but at least my father knew his son had grown up enough to start challenging him. That night, we told our mother to leave. We packed her stuff, she left in the morning to go to the business as usual. We packed some of her clothes in a school bag, and with those she left. Left an abusive marriage, an abusive man, a toxic life.

When a woman gets a chance to leave it takes a lot of strength and at times children also play a major role to that shift. We should support survivors and end Violence against Women and Girls.

By Esther Wambui- Executive Director for YWLI

Young Women's Leadership Institute (YWLI) is one of the four partner institutes of the African Centers of Excellence (ACE) for Women's Leadership program run by the Institute of International Education (IIE) , Ethiopia Office.

For more on IIE , ACE or YWLI please follow the links below.  

Thursday, March 24, 2016

WISE is like a mother to me!

My Name is Ayelech Esubalew. I am a member of the 'Mekaleya' Self Employed Women’s saving and Credit Cooperative. I was born in a small rural village in Ethiopia in 1972 but I grew up in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia.  My family had a good life, but my aunt fetched me to Addis when I was nine years old, promising to enroll me in school.  I helped her with the household work. There was not much to do and I was attending my evening school. I was able to attain until seventh grade while staying with her. However, as the years went by, the workload got heavier and conflicts developed with my aunt. So I left her house and got hired as a maid in another household for three years. Meanwhile, I managed to continue with my education.   
At age 19, I became pregnant and it created arguments within my family. They wanted to give my child for adoption. However, I was determined to sacrifice myself to raise my son. I immediately started searching for my father who then was living in Addis. We found him but he passed away five months after we met.  We continued living in my father’s house where I went through lots of struggle to raise my son. I did a variety of menial work. At the last place I worked, the lady who employed me paid me a monthly salary that only covered half a liter of milk for my son’s daily consumption. After two years of working for her, she lent me 100 birr (around $10 at the time) and I started selling berbere (chili powder). It was just at this juncture that WISE’s staff began introducing the work of the organization around where I lived. That was in 1998.
Having joined WISE, I started becoming optimistic immediately after I took the basic business skills training. I became full of hope. It made me think that anything is possible. Shortly after the training, I took a loan and continued my business of selling ‘berbere’ and diversified it to an extent by selling charcoal. My business gradually started showing improvement.  Over time, my business reached a better level. I was able to provide everything my son needed and later enrolled him to school.  He was a very thoughtful child. He preferred books over cloths. I did my best to provide everything that he needed for his education. I raised him single handedly without support from anyone.  I was both a mother and father to him. He scored the highest point when he joined preparatory school. Later when he joined the university, I bought him a laptop computer. I always prayed that he achieves his best. And God heard my prayers. He has now graduated in Civil Engineering from a University in Ethiopia and currently leads a ‘40/60’ condominium housing construction scheme.
There are a number of changes in my life. I was able to build a better house.  We used to live in a small rundown corrugated iron sheet house I inherited from my father. Now I changed that into a three roomed house. In addition to my own living quarter, I built one more room which is rented out.  Of all the achievements, educating my son is the one thing that makes me happy and proud. He secured a job immediately after he graduated. I also supported my nephew to pursue his education and he is now employed with the Ethiopian Air Lines. Currently, I have a good life.  There are many families who were not able to send their children to school. To contribute my share as a citizen, I am currently seeking out to support a child from a poor family.
My saving is not what it could have been. Previously, my priority was not saving but investing on my son’s education. I was able to provide for all his needs.  Yet, I have 15,000 Birr (around $1500) saving with my cooperative and 15,000 ($1500) Birr in the bank. I took different round of loans according to my business needs.  The highest loan I took so far was 15,000 birr ($1500).
I served my cooperative for the last 15 years at different capacities including as the treasurer and as member of different committees in leadership positions. Currently, I am the group leader in my cooperative.
My immediate plan is to sell household utensils in addition to my current business.

The message I have for other women who are interested to work and improve their living but are home bound is that they must come out and join WISE to benefit from the knowledge and financial services. WISE is like a mother and a home. WISE is my confidant.  I am so grateful to WISE for helping me to get here, next to God. 

Women in Self Employment (WISE) is one of the four partner institutes of the African Centers of Excellence (ACE) for Women's Leadership Program run by the Institute of Intenrational Education (IIE), Ethiopia Office 

For more on IIE , ACE or WISE please follow the links below.

Friday, March 11, 2016

Mary Balikungeri: The Consummate Women’s Advocate

Ms Mary Balikungeri, Founder and Director , RWN


For more than two-and-a-half decades, I have been engaging in crosscutting debates about how to empower women and move beyond women-friendly policies to protective actions. And, as the founder and Director of Rwanda Women’s Network, we as an organization have been working with various local and international partners. RWN also plays a capacity building and facilitating role to a network of over 52 grassroots associations across Rwanda. The Network has been part of the African Centers of Excellence (ACE) since 2013.

I have been described as a consummate grassroots advocate, working to bridge the local with the global. And, having received leadership training through the ACE Leadership Program, which RWN is spearheading in Rwanda, it has only made me stronger in our quest for the woman’s cause.

Going through the ACE Leadership Program is a transformative process that has enabled me to transfer the knowledge I have learned to Network members, some of whom have formed a pool of facilitators to lead in the local ACE Program. This has laid the foundation to upscale women’s spaces, which offer forums for them to engage gainfully towards policy change.
The ACE came at the right time as it not only enhances women’s leadership and decision-making capacities, but gives the women the empowering ability to interrogate their inner powers. When a woman realizes her inner strength, she also gains the ability to be assertive in demanding her rights.

After years of organizing among national leaders and grassroots women, community-based women in the Network across the country are focused on how to make the women friendly legislation meaningful in practice. One of these relates to gender-based violence.

What we’ve been doing is mapping who are positive men, bring them on board in our spaces and train them to be community mobilizes.  Our women from our spaces are out in the communities speaking about all these issues, the ways laws are changing and maybe creating new relations between men and women. We’ve seen that the inheritance law especially has attracted the men. They are keen to understand the impact the law has and how it affects them as men and heads of their families. The women meet these men, and really we’re very selective about who we invite to join us -- we want to be sure they won’t bring in their manly attitudes. But we think they have a big role to play with the gender-based violence work. We tell them, “This is also your business. It can’t be women’s business alone. Then we let them take the lead in training people in that message.

As a vocal supporter of a burgeoning pro-choice contingent of activists we are pushing for, among other issues, more friendly sexual and reproductive policies, including the abortion law, which is currently being revisited. The law, as it currently stands, has been cumbersome to implement by involving an unfriendly judicial and medical process to the disadvantage of women and girls. This has meant that, though a law exists, is has not served the purpose it was enacted to address.

What we’re missing is a focused, smart awareness about abortion and how we come to this.  It starts with our hesitancy to talk about sexuality. Before we even get to the discussion of choice, we have to fix this stigma towards women’s health that leaves young people uninformed. This new abortion law is being much talked about now, and activists are asking, “Is the current law really working for women?” We’re pushing to give freedom to abort when they feel they need to. But this is a very Christian country, and they’re saying, “Why are we promoting abortion when we should be promoting morality?” The fact is that people should be making choices about their health before they even get to the question of abortion. But it will take us ages because of this taboo. So let’s start with accepting to talk openly about sex and the right to make healthy, informed choices.

Notably, it has been through the women-specific spaces that the women have been finding their strength. Exchanges in the spaces have been insightful for me and my team, as we strategize about how best to reach out to the women they aim to support. 
We’re learning a lot about empowerment of women and how they make decisions about their sexual rights, making sure that a woman determines when she has a baby, that the family has access to contraceptives. It’s really opening up a new conversation, with lots of learning for women. It’s amazing to hear what they say about sexuality, being forced in bed when you’re not even willing. To some women, this is normal, to others, no! So it’s really showing how important it is to be sure women across the country take leadership with rights issues.

On these issues, as well as in enhancing their leadership capacity and skills, ACE has graduated the women to engage at all levels from the grassroots to the national level.

From where ACE found us, it has been an empowering process beginning with the leadership curriculum development up to now when RWN and her national partners are putting it to work to enhance women’s leadership capacity and skills. Being part of the ACE initiative has also ensured a networking platform locally, nationally and at the regional level.

Rwanda Women's Network (RWN) is one of the four partner institutes of the African Centers of Excellence (ACE) for Women's Leadership program run by the Institute of International Education (IIE) , Ethiopia Office.
For more on IIE , ACE or RWN please follow the links below.

Friday, March 4, 2016

When Interest and Opportunity Match...

Hilina Yitateku is a young entrepreneur, who is able to grow her business capital tremendously in a very short period.  She is a mother of two and has got a diploma in Machine Operating and advanced diploma in Industrial Engineering.  After her graduation, she was employed in one of the industrial companies and worked there for ten years but she was not happy. Finally, she resigned. We invited her to share with us her life experiences, what motivated her to start a business …and her success factors.  We hope you enjoy the read.

After obtaining a diploma in Machine Operating, I was working for a company for ten years with a monthly salary of Birr 1,900.00 ($90.5). I continued attending classes for my BA degree at Addis Ababa University in the department of Engineering. I then heard that most of the BA graduates who are employed in the same company as I were earning Birr 1500.00 ($71.4) which was very discouraging for me. Then I decided to stop attending classes and resigned from the company.

Before I started engaging in business, I was hoping to take trainings since I didn’t have any knowledge and skills about starting my own business. My sister, a senior member of one of the Saving and Credit Cooperatives (SACCOs) of Women In Self Employment advised me to become a member of a SACCO and take a business skills training. It was in 2007 that I joined ‘Serto Massaya’ SACCO in ‘Akaki-Kaity’ sub-city. This was a very good opportunity for me.I took the Basic Business Skill (BBS) training for 10 half days. While attending the training, I realized that my previous diploma and degree classes could not help me to become an entrepreneur.  The training was very relevant and it encouraged me to start my business immediately.

As soon as I completed attending the BBS training, I took a first cycle loan of Birr 500.00 ($23.8) and started a mobile maintenance business. Since I was not skilled in the profession; I hired my cousin to work as a part-timer. But, it was very difficult for him to run this task as he had a commitment in another business.  Due to this problem, I took short term mobile maintenance training and started the job myself. After a while, I handed over the business to another person and engaged in printing and stationary business with my friend. After four years in the business, our partnership discontinued and I opened my own private printing and stationery firm with the name Hilina Yitateku Printing and Stationery P.L.C.

Since I applied the knowledge and skills I got from the training at WISE, it didn’t take much of my time to bring changes in the business.  As my business grew fast, I requested my husband to resign from his job and start his own business too.  Soon he started his own steel works.  Aside from his business, he continued attending classes for his BA degree in Civil Engineering and he also obtained construction license.  Currently, he is running both steel and construction works. While he was attending classes, I was the one who was supporting him financially. Now, both of us have become successful in running our businesses. 

I work 12 hours per day including weekends. This helped me to attract more customers and improve my business capital. I have won many bids, some amounting up to Birr one million ($47,619). The loan I once took from the SACCOs Union which amounted Birr 300,000 ($14,286) that I used for a bid I won was very helpful to transform my business.I recently, travelled to China and brought 5 modern, digital printing machines in order to do my business efficiently and effectively. Currently, I am engaged in cap & T-shirt printing, making flash stamps and producing different kinds of cards. I have rented two shops for my business and pay Birr 14,000.00 ($667) per month. I also bought a Suzuki Vitara car, employed three people in my business.  My children go to a private school and they also have private tutors. 

My business capital has reached around a million Birr ($47,620). I still keep my membership at my cooperative as it is my foundation.
In the future, I am planning to shift this business to my sister and start engaging in a different business, which I don’t want to disclose for the time being.  
Before concluding, she told us the factors that helped her to become successful. She enumerated the following as major ones.
·         My burning passion to engage in business is the first and foremost contributing factor for my success.
·         I took 12 trainings in Business and other subjects at WISE. These equipped me with the necessary knowledge and skills at various levels.
·         The access to financial services from my Cooperative and Union also helped me to expand my business.
·         I use my time appropriately and effectively.  I spend most of my time on things that add value to my business.
·         I am a visionary and risk taking person. I believe I have the ability to change problems into opportunities.
·         I usually prioritize tasks with clear plans. This helps me to be organized and accomplish my goal.
·         To achieve my vision, I sacrifice my leisure time and other social issues for my work. I believe this has also contributed to my success tremendously.
·         Last but not least, I am blessed with a very supportive husband.  He shares in every domestic chore, especially in taking care of the children. This helps me to focus on my business.  He always encourages and supports me in every direction. If I have work I need to take care of, he stays with me in the shop until midnight.

Finally, I would like to thank WISE for giving me this golden opportunity to help me become a successful business woman. 

Women in Self Employment (WISE) is one of the four partner institutes of the African Centers of Excellence (ACE) for Women's Leadership Program run by the Institute of Intenrational Education (IIE), Ethiopia Office 

For more on IIE , ACE or WISE please follow the links below.

Monday, February 22, 2016


Ms Eunice Musiime- Executive Director AMwA 

There is growing optimism that Africa is rising, partly hinged on the demographic transition that a number of countries are experiencing. However experts warn that Africa must take concrete actions in order to reap the demographic dividend. The President of Ghana, Mr John Mahama expressed urgent need for Africa to do more for the youth if they are going to participate more actively in economic development. He said this while delivering an opening speech at the 7th Africa Conference on Sexual Health and Rights which was held under the theme “Realizing the demographic dividend in Africa: The critical importance of Adolescents and Youth Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights” held in Accra Ghana, from the 10th-12th of February, 2016.

The conference was organized by Curious Minds under the patronage of the First Lady of the Republic of Ghana and the President of the African First Ladies Against HIV&AIDS, Dr Nana Mahama. The conference attracted over 600 delegates including 12 African first ladies, ministers, senior officers of United Nations Agencies, technocrats, parliamentarians, civil society, traditional institutions, youth activists and development partners.

Dr Babatunde Osetimehin the Executive Director of the United Nations Populations Fund who delivered the key note address reinforced the importance of investing in the health of the people, particularly women and girls in the areas of their sexual and reproductive health, their capacities in the expansion of their opportunities to realize their full potential and to achieve sustainable development.

At a pre conference meeting of African Centers for Excellence (ACE) partners collectively reflected on how Africa can reap the demographic dividend and identified concrete strategic and operational actions that can be taken by Africa.  ACE Director Saba Gebremedhin summarized the outcomes needed to achieve the demographic dividend as: the need to invest in quality education, ensure reduction of fertility rates especially strengthening family planning, and champion inclusive development.

Tsigie Haile the Executive Director of Women in Self Employment in Ethiopia said macroeconomic policies including monetary and fiscal policies to promote a saving culture and micro insurance schemes were needed to prepare Africa for old age. She shared the experience of her organization where a micro insurance scheme was adopted for the poor women to buttress them when they are no longer in position to work.  

Commenting on the theme of the conference, the Executive Director of Young Women’s Leadership Institute, Ms Esther Kimani said that Comprehensive Sexuality Education for adolescents and youth was the missing link to help address teenage pregnancy. She underscored the fact that Comprehensive Sex Education helps young women to make the right choices and avoid mistakes leading to girls delaying their first sexual debut, retention in school and reduction of fertility rates.

Ms Mary Balikungeri the Executive Director of Rwanda Women’s Network, an organization championing gender equality, proposed that it is critical to promote safe spaces for young women and adolescents to provide a secure and healthy environment to prevent gender based violence and respect for reproductive health rights.  

The conference ended on a high note with the first Lady Mrs Lordina Mahama launching the Ending Child Marriage Campaign Ghana. In her address, the First Lady, stated that ending child marriage on the continent was critical to realization of the Sustainable Development Goals on gender equality and poverty. She urged African Heads of State to enforce legislation they passed on the marriageable age for girls at 18, in their respective countries.

By- Eunice Musiime- Executive Director -Akina Mama wa Afrika

AKina Mama wa Afrika (AMwA) is one of the four partner institutes of the African Centers of Excellence (ACE) for Women's Leadership program run by the Institute of International Education (IIE) , Sub Saharan Africa- Ethiopia Office.

For more on IIE , ACE or AMwA please follow the links below.